RM Francesco Caracciolo (CV-1928)
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The Caraciolo class were laid down just as the war started, with four ships
being projected. With the Italian entry into the war on the Allied side in 1915,
work on the Caraciolo was slowed down and stopped on the other 3. Work on the
Caraciolo was finally halted in 1916 as the equipment and material was required
to assist the war effort against the Austro-Hungarian forces. The 15" guns were
used in monitors and as rail guns till the used guns were eventually sold to the
Netherlands (See that countries
Zeeland class BB). At
this stage there were still two full sets of 15" guns available, but the turrets
for them had not been completed. With the finish of the war in
1918 the Italian Navy undertook an inventory of what was available to them
through existing ship, ships under construction and what they might receive from
the Allied War Commission sources. The Caraciolo was the only battleship that
was far enough advanced to be able to completed in a reasonable period of time.
The Castellamare yard advised that 2-3 years would be required to finish the
ship as a battleship depending on the resources available. Work was approved to
proceed to launch status, which occurred in 1920. The ship was then under
scrutiny as to its future.
At this stage it is probably worth remembering that Italy was still a fully
paid up member of the 'Allied Powers' in good standing and if the Italian Navy
asked for assistance with its building programs from the US or Commonwealth
sources such assistance would probably be given. The Italians did not really become 'bad
guys' until 1935 with the invasion of Abyssinia and in 1939 with the signing of
the Pact of Steel.
The Italian Navy eyed the US, Commonwealth and even French Navies conversions
of ex-battleships and battlecruisers to ships to carry and operate aircraft.
Such ships as the Argus and Eagle were of a size with the Caracciolo and such a
conversion of the Caraciolo would be of use to the Italian Navy to explore the
possibilities of Naval Aviation. Permission was given to proceed in 1921.
The Caraciolo conversion was based on the latest Commonwealth conversions
with elements taken from the US conversions. That's a lot of conversions. The
Caraciolo was unique in having two separate hangars with seperate entrances.
The upper hangar was for fixed wing aircraft with two elevators to take the
aircraft up to the flight deck. The lower hangar was a half size compared to the
upper hangar and was for the storage and maintenance of seaplanes and flying
boats. The access to the hangar was through the rear of the hangar with two
cranes to lift the aircraft from the sea to their hangar deck. The Caraciolo
had a cunning system of extendable sliding floor sponsons that were controlled
by electric motors which would extend out 20 feet from the ships side under the
flying boat which would then settle onto its cradle, the aircraft then being
drawn back into the ship, the wings folded and the aircraft being pushed back
into the hangar.
This system worked well but as the fixed wing aircraft got better and
outperformed the flying boat/seaplane genre. It was decided to bring the lower
hangar into use for fixed wing aircraft by extending the rear elevator down to
the lower level. This improved the overall fixed wing carrying capacity from
around 30 to 48 by 1939. From that date the seaplane handling facilities were
removed. The rear elevator now blocked the seaplanes entry.
Work was recommenced on the ship in late 1921 in a stop start fashion as
designs and new features were added and subtracted. The ship was finally
completed in 1926 but underwent a further 2 years of 'builders' trials before
the ship was finally accepted for service by the Regia Marina in 1928.
||31,200 tons std 38,800 tons full load
||4 shaft steam turbines, 100,000shp
||4000 miles at 15 knots (1,500 nm at 27 knots)
||3.9" side, 2.6" deck
||8 x 4.7" (8x1)
14 x 37mm (14x1)
||As Built: 34 fixed wing, 8-12 flying boats
48 fixed wing
||RM Francesco Caraciolo
Francesco Caraciolo: laid down 12 October 1914, launched 12 May
1920 - completed 4 March 1928, Royal Naval Yard, Castellamare di
The unused and unsold 15" guns were fitted into the completed turrets and
mounted as shore batteries defending Italian Navy bases.
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